Sex differences in the association of Vitamin D and metabolic risk factors with carotid intima-media thickness in obese adolescents

Indah K. Murni, Dian C. Sulistyoningrum, Danijela Gasevic, Rina Susilowati, Madarina Julia

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Background It has been shown that vitamin D is associated with obesity and the development of atherosclerosis. Less is known about this association among adolescents with obesity. Objectives To determine the association of vitamin D level and metabolic risk factors with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) among obese adolescents. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study among obese children aged 15 to 17 years in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The association of vitamin D and other metabolic risk factors (triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and insulin resistance using homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)) with CIMT was explored by multivariable linear regression models. Results Out of 156 obese adolescents, 55.8% were boys. Compared to girls, boys had higher BMI z-score, waist circumference, and HDL-cholesterol. After adjustment for age, sex and second-hand smoke exposure, high HOMA-IR, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels were associated with higher odds of elevated CIMT. In analyses stratified by sex, a similar trend was observed in boys, while none of the risk factors were associated with CIMT in girls. We observed no association between vitamin D and CIMT. Conclusions Hyperinsulinemia, higher total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol were associated with greater odds of elevated CIMT among obese adolescent boys.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0258617
Number of pages12
JournalPLoS ONE
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2021

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