Sex Differences in Bone Health Among Indian Older Adults with Obesity, Sarcopenia, and Sarcopenic Obesity

Anoohya Gandham, David Scott, Maxine P. Bonham, Bharati Kulkarni, Sanjay Kinra, Peter R. Ebeling, Ayse Zengin

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5 Citations (Scopus)


Age-related changes in fat and lean mass contribute to bone health, but these associations may be influenced by sex and ethnicity. This study investigated sex-specific associations of obesity and sarcopenia with bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) among Indian older adults. 1057 adults aged ≥ 50 years were included. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measured BMD at the hip, spine and whole-body, and BMAD was calculated as BMD/√bone area. Obesity was defined by body fat percentage (cut points; > 25% for men and > 35% for women), and sarcopenia was defined using the revised Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia classification with low hand grip strength (< 28 kg for men and < 18 kg for women) and appendicular lean mass index (< 7.0 kg/m2 for men and < 5.4 kg/m2 for women). Participants were classified into four groups: controls (no obesity or sarcopenia), obesity, sarcopenia, or sarcopenic obesity. Linear regression (β-coefficients and 95%CI) analyses were performed with adjustments for age, smoking status, protein intake, and socioeconomic status. Prevalence of sarcopenia (37%) and sarcopenic obesity (6%) were higher in men than women (17% and 4%, respectively). Compared with controls, men with obesity had lower whole-body BMD and BMAD, but women with obesity had higher hip and spine BMD and BMAD (all p < 0.05). Men, but not women, with sarcopenic obesity, had lower hip and whole-body BMD and BMAD (all p < 0.05) than controls. Men with sarcopenia had lower BMD and BMAD at the hip only, whereas women had lower BMD at all three sites and had lower BMAD at the hip and spine (all p < 0.05), compared with controls. Obesity, sarcopenia, and sarcopenic obesity have sex-specific associations with BMD and BMAD in Indian older adults. With the aging population in India, it is important to understand how body composition contributes to poor bone health among older adults.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)152–161
Number of pages10
JournalCalcified Tissue International
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2022


  • Bone
  • Obesity
  • Older adults
  • Sarcopenia

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