Aging is a natural process defined by the gradual, time-dependent decline of biological and behavioural functions, for which individuals of the same chronological age show variability. The capacity of biological systems to continuously adjust for optimal functioning despite ever changing environments is essential for healthy aging, and variability in these adaptive homeostatic mechanisms may reflect such heterogeneity in the aging process. With an ever-increasing aging population, interest in biomarkers of aging is growing. Although no universally accepted definition of biomarkers of healthy aging exists, mediators of homeostasis are consistently used as measures of the aging process. As important sex differences are known to underlie many of these systems, it is imperative to consider that this may reflect, to some extent, the sex differences observed in aging and age-related disease states. This chapter aims to outline sex differences in key homeostatic domains thought to be associated with the pathophysiology of aging, often proposed as biomarkers of aging and age-related disease states. This includes considering sex-based differences and hormonal status with regards to the gonadal and adrenal endocrine systems and immune function.