Hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis that regulate reproductive function have multiple effects on the development, maintenance and function of the brain. Sex differences in cognitive functioning have been reported in both health and disease, which may be partly attributed to sex hormones. The aim of the current paper was to provide a theoretical review of how sex hormones influence cognitive functioning across the lifespan as well as provide an overview of the literature on sex differences and the role of sex hormones in cognitive decline, specifically in relation to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A summary of current hormone and sex-based interventions for enhancing cognitive functioning and/or reducing the risk of Alzheimer’s disease is also provided.
- Sex differences
- Sex hormones