Sex and gender inclusion, analysis, and reporting in anaesthesia research

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Sex and gender are key determinants of health, and they intersect with each other to affect patterns of disease and injury. Sex and gender, therefore, require consideration in the design, analysis, and reporting of anaesthesia and perioperative medicine research. The purpose of this paper is to describe the current status of sex and gender analysis and reporting, and to make proposals for improvement. Our paper will focus on women, but we acknowledge the deep health inequities and lack of inclusion in research experienced by intersex and transgender people.1,2 When possible, we will draw examples from the anaesthesia and perioperative medicine literature.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e43-e49
Number of pages7
JournalBritish Journal of Anaesthesia
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2020


  • anaesthesia
  • gender
  • randomised trial
  • research
  • sex

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