Servant leadership behaviour scale: A hierarchical model and test of construct validity

Sen Sendjaya, Brian Cooper

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

45 Citations (Scopus)


Servant leadership is widely believed to be a multidimensional construct. However, existing measures of servant leadership typically suffer from highly correlated dimensions, raising concerns over discriminant validity. We set out in this study to examine the dimensionality of the hypothesized six-factor Servant Leadership Behaviour Scale (SLBS) and validate a hierarchical model of servant leadership. Using structural equation modelling, convergent and discriminant validity of the higher-order servant leadership construct was examined in relation to measures of character-related behaviour, Machiavellian leadership orientation, and social desirability. Our findings suggest that the SLBS assesses a single, higher-order construct of servant leadership with evidence of construct validity and absence of social desirability bias. The high correlation between servant leadership and character-related behaviour supports our expectation that servant leadership reflects in large part the character strength of the leader.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)416 - 436
Number of pages21
JournalEuropean Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2011

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