Nipah virus nucleocapsid (NiV-N) protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by histidine tag-based affinity chromatography. An indirect immunoglobulin G (IgG) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for human and swine sera and an IgM capture ELISA for human sera were established using the recombinant NiV-N protein as an antigen. One hundred thirty-three suspected patient sera and 16 swine sera were used to evaluate the newly established ELISA systems in comparison with the CDC inactivated-virus-based ELISA systems. For the human sera, the NiV-N protein-based indirect IgG ELISA had a sensitivity of 98.6% and a specificity of 98.4%, and the NiV-N protein-based IgM capture ELISA had a sensitivity of 91.7% and a specificity of 91.8%, with reference to the CDC ELISA systems. The NiV-N-based IgM ELISA was found to be more sensitive than the inactivated-virus-based ELISA in that it captured eight additional cases. For the swine sera, the two test systems were in 100% concordance. Our data indicate that the Nipah virus nucleocapsid protein is a highly immunogenic protein in human and swine infections and a good target for serodiagnosis. Our NiV-N protein-based ELISA systems are useful, safe, and affordable tools for diagnosis of Nipah virus infection and are especially fit to be used in large-scale epidemiological investigations and to be applied in developing countries.