Background Use of alcohol-containing mouthwash has been found to have an inhibitory effect against pharyngeal gonorrhoea. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between self-reported mouthwash use and pharyngeal gonorrhoea detection among men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted between March 23, 2015, and June 30, 2015 among MSM attending the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre in Australia. Men who have sex with men were invited to complete a short questionnaire on mouthwash use and they were also tested for pharyngeal gonorrhoea by nucleic acid amplification test. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to examine the association between mouthwash use and pharyngeal gonorrhoea detection. Results Of the 823 MSM, pharyngeal gonorrhoea detection decreased significantly with increasing age group (≤24 years, 14.5%; 25-34 years, 10.7%; ≥35 years, 6.0%; ptrend = 0.003). The proportion reporting daily use of mouthwash increased significantly with increasing age group (from 10.1% to 14.5% to 19.8%; ptrend = 0.005). However, there was no significant association between pharyngeal gonorrhoea detection and daily use of mouthwash after adjusting for age, number of male sexual partners, human immunodeficiency virus status, and type of mouthwash use. Conclusions Although the proportion of daily use of mouthwash increased with age, and pharyngeal gonorrhoea detection decreased with age, the association between self-reported mouthwash use and pharyngeal gonorrhoea detection by nucleic acid amplification test was not statistically significant.