Self-reported pain with single leg heel raise or single leg hop offer distinct information as measures of severity in men with midportion and insertional Achilles tendinopathy: An observational cross-sectional study

Patrick Vallance, Fatmah Hasani, Liam Crowley, Peter Malliaras

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2 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: To investigate if self-reported pain with single leg heel raise (SLHR) or single leg hop (SLH) are concurrently valid to assess midportion (MPAT) or insertional Achilles tendinopathy (IAT) symptom severity, compared to the VISA-A. Additionally, if SLHR or SLH pain accounts for VISA-A variability, and if they are associated with psychological factors. Participants: 60 men with MPAT, 26 men with IAT. Main outcomes: Participants rated SLHR and SLH pain on a numerical rating scale (0 = none, 10 = worst). We investigated relationships between loading task pain, VISA-A, VISA-A constructs, and psychological outcomes (Pearson's correlation coefficients). Linear regression determined best model accounting for VISA-A variability. Results: In MPAT, load tests shared fair-negative relationship with VISA-A, and VISA-A function. In IAT, SLHR had moderately strong-negative relationship with VISA-A, and pain and function constructs, and SLH shared fair-negative relationship with VISA-A, and pain and function constructs. Relationships were negligible between load tests and VISA-A activity in both conditions, and VISA-A pain in MPAT. In IAT, there was fair-positive relationship between pain catastrophising and load tests. Remaining psychological outcome relationships were negligible. Best model accounting for VISA-A included SLH in MPAT, and SLHR in IAT. Conclusions: Despite VISA-A and selected VISA-A construct associations, self-reported SLHR and SLH pain appears to provide distinct information.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)23-31
Number of pages9
JournalPhysical Therapy in Sport
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2021


  • Achilles tendinopathy
  • Concurrent validity
  • Symptom severity
  • Tendon-specific loading test

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