Select critically ill patients at risk of augmented renal clearance: experience in a Malaysian intensive care unit

S. Adnan, S. Ratnam, S. Kumar, D. Paterson, J. Lipman, J. Roberts, A. A. Udy

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Abstract

Augmented renal clearance (ARC) refers to increased solute elimination by the kidneys. ARC has considerable implications for altered drug concentrations. The aims of this study were to describe the prevalence of ARC in a select cohort of patients admitted to a Malaysian intensive care unit (ICU) and to compare measured and calculated creatinine clearances in this group. Patients with an expected ICU stay of <24 hours plus an admission serum creatinine concentration <120 µmol/l, were enrolled from May to July 2013. Twenty-four hour urinary collections and serum creatinine concentrations were used to measure creatinine clearance. A total of 49 patients were included, with a median age of 34 years. Most study participants were male and admitted after trauma. Thirty-nine percent were found to have ARC. These patients were more commonly admitted in emergency (P=0.03), although no other covariants were identified as predicting ARC, likely due to the inclusion criteria and the study being under-powered. Significant imprecision was demonstrated when comparing calculated Cockcroft-Gault creatinine clearance (Crcl) and measured Crcl. Bias was larger in ARC patients, with Cockcroft-Gault Crcl being significantly lower than measured Crcl (P <0.01) and demonstrating poor correlation (rs=-0.04). In conclusion, critically ill patients with 'normal' serum creatinine concentrations have varied Crcl. Many are at risk of ARC, which may necessitate individualised drug dosing. Furthermore, significant bias and imprecision between calculated and measured Crcl exists, suggesting clinicians should carefully consider which method they employ in assessing renal function.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)715-722
Number of pages8
JournalAnaesthesia and Intensive Care
Volume42
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2014
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • antibiotic dosing
  • augmented renal clearance
  • creatinine clearance
  • critical illness
  • glomerular filtration rate

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