Seizure forecasting: Where do we stand?

Ralph G. Andrzejak, Hitten P. Zaveri, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage, Marc G. Leguia, William C. Stacey, Mark P. Richardson, Levin Kuhlmann, Klaus Lehnertz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


A lot of mileage has been made recently on the long and winding road toward seizure forecasting. Here we briefly review some selected milestones passed along the way, which were discussed at the International Conference for Technology and Analysis of Seizures—ICTALS 2022—convened at the University of Bern, Switzerland. Major impetus was gained recently from wearable and implantable devices that record not only electroencephalography, but also data on motor behavior, acoustic signals, and various signals of the autonomic nervous system. This multimodal monitoring can be performed for ultralong timescales covering months or years. Accordingly, features and metrics extracted from these data now assess seizure dynamics with a greater degree of completeness. Most prominently, this has allowed the confirmation of the long-suspected cyclical nature of interictal epileptiform activity, seizure risk, and seizures. The timescales cover daily, multi-day, and yearly cycles. Progress has also been fueled by approaches originating from the interdisciplinary field of network science. Considering epilepsy as a large-scale network disorder yielded novel perspectives on the pre-ictal dynamics of the evolving epileptic brain. In addition to discrete predictions that a seizure will take place in a specified prediction horizon, the community broadened the scope to probabilistic forecasts of a seizure risk evolving continuously in time. This shift of gears triggered the incorporation of additional metrics to quantify the performance of forecasting algorithms, which should be compared to the chance performance of constrained stochastic null models. An imminent task of utmost importance is to find optimal ways to communicate the output of seizure-forecasting algorithms to patients, caretakers, and clinicians, so that they can have socioeconomic impact and improve patients' well-being.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S62-S71
Number of pages10
Issue numberS3
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023


  • monitoring devices
  • multimodal monitoring
  • network theory of epilepsy
  • quality of life
  • seizure control
  • seizure cycles
  • seizure prediction
  • seizure risk
  • wearables

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