Second extracellular loop of human glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) differentially regulates orthosteric but not allosteric agonist binding and function

Cassandra R Koole, Denise L Wootten, John Simms, Emilia Elizabeth Savage, Laurence J Miller, Arthur Christopoulos, Patrick Michael Sexton

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19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is a prototypical family B G protein-coupled receptor that exhibits physiologically important pleiotropic coupling and ligand-dependent signal bias. In our accompanying article (Koole, C., Wootten, D., Simms, J., Miller, L. J., Christopoulos, A., and Sexton, P. M. (2012) J. Biol. Chem. 287, 3642-3658), we demonstrate, through alanine-scanning mutagenesis, a key role for extracellular loop (ECL) 2 of the receptor in propagating activation transition mediated by GLP-1 peptides that occurs in a peptide- and pathway-dependent manner for cAMP formation, intracellular (Ca(2+)(i)) mobilization, and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (pERK1/2). In this study, we examine the effect of ECL2 mutations on the binding and signaling of the peptide mimetics, exendin-4 and oxyntomodulin, as well as small molecule allosteric agonist 6,7-dichloro-2-methylsulfonyl-3-tert-butylaminoquinoxaline (compound 2). Lys-288, Cys-296, Trp-297, and Asn-300 were globally important for peptide signaling and also had critical roles in governing signal bias of the receptor. Peptide-specific effects on relative efficacy and signal bias were most commonly observed for residues 301-305, although R299A mutation also caused significantly different effects for individual peptides. Met-303 was more important for exendin-4 and oxyntomodulin action than those of GLP-1 peptides. Globally, ECL2 mutation was more detrimental to exendin-4-mediated Ca(2+)i release than GLP-1(7-36)-NH(2), providing additional evidence for subtle differences in receptor activation by these two peptides. Unlike peptide activation of the GLP-1R, ECL2 mutations had only limited impact on compound 2 mediated cAMP and pERK responses, consistent with this ligand having a distinct mechanism for receptor activation. These data suggest a critical role of ECL2 of the GLP-1R in the activation transition of the receptor by peptide agonists.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3659 - 3673
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Volume287
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2012

Cite this

@article{6d63c8fce8874edfb4e50eb7c1849222,
title = "Second extracellular loop of human glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) differentially regulates orthosteric but not allosteric agonist binding and function",
abstract = "The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is a prototypical family B G protein-coupled receptor that exhibits physiologically important pleiotropic coupling and ligand-dependent signal bias. In our accompanying article (Koole, C., Wootten, D., Simms, J., Miller, L. J., Christopoulos, A., and Sexton, P. M. (2012) J. Biol. Chem. 287, 3642-3658), we demonstrate, through alanine-scanning mutagenesis, a key role for extracellular loop (ECL) 2 of the receptor in propagating activation transition mediated by GLP-1 peptides that occurs in a peptide- and pathway-dependent manner for cAMP formation, intracellular (Ca(2+)(i)) mobilization, and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (pERK1/2). In this study, we examine the effect of ECL2 mutations on the binding and signaling of the peptide mimetics, exendin-4 and oxyntomodulin, as well as small molecule allosteric agonist 6,7-dichloro-2-methylsulfonyl-3-tert-butylaminoquinoxaline (compound 2). Lys-288, Cys-296, Trp-297, and Asn-300 were globally important for peptide signaling and also had critical roles in governing signal bias of the receptor. Peptide-specific effects on relative efficacy and signal bias were most commonly observed for residues 301-305, although R299A mutation also caused significantly different effects for individual peptides. Met-303 was more important for exendin-4 and oxyntomodulin action than those of GLP-1 peptides. Globally, ECL2 mutation was more detrimental to exendin-4-mediated Ca(2+)i release than GLP-1(7-36)-NH(2), providing additional evidence for subtle differences in receptor activation by these two peptides. Unlike peptide activation of the GLP-1R, ECL2 mutations had only limited impact on compound 2 mediated cAMP and pERK responses, consistent with this ligand having a distinct mechanism for receptor activation. These data suggest a critical role of ECL2 of the GLP-1R in the activation transition of the receptor by peptide agonists.",
author = "Koole, {Cassandra R} and Wootten, {Denise L} and John Simms and Savage, {Emilia Elizabeth} and Miller, {Laurence J} and Arthur Christopoulos and Sexton, {Patrick Michael}",
year = "2012",
doi = "10.1074/jbc.M111.309369",
language = "English",
volume = "287",
pages = "3659 -- 3673",
journal = "Journal of Biological Chemistry",
issn = "1083-351X",
publisher = "American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology",
number = "6",

}

Second extracellular loop of human glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) differentially regulates orthosteric but not allosteric agonist binding and function. / Koole, Cassandra R; Wootten, Denise L; Simms, John; Savage, Emilia Elizabeth; Miller, Laurence J; Christopoulos, Arthur; Sexton, Patrick Michael.

In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol. 287, No. 6, 2012, p. 3659 - 3673.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Second extracellular loop of human glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) differentially regulates orthosteric but not allosteric agonist binding and function

AU - Koole, Cassandra R

AU - Wootten, Denise L

AU - Simms, John

AU - Savage, Emilia Elizabeth

AU - Miller, Laurence J

AU - Christopoulos, Arthur

AU - Sexton, Patrick Michael

PY - 2012

Y1 - 2012

N2 - The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is a prototypical family B G protein-coupled receptor that exhibits physiologically important pleiotropic coupling and ligand-dependent signal bias. In our accompanying article (Koole, C., Wootten, D., Simms, J., Miller, L. J., Christopoulos, A., and Sexton, P. M. (2012) J. Biol. Chem. 287, 3642-3658), we demonstrate, through alanine-scanning mutagenesis, a key role for extracellular loop (ECL) 2 of the receptor in propagating activation transition mediated by GLP-1 peptides that occurs in a peptide- and pathway-dependent manner for cAMP formation, intracellular (Ca(2+)(i)) mobilization, and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (pERK1/2). In this study, we examine the effect of ECL2 mutations on the binding and signaling of the peptide mimetics, exendin-4 and oxyntomodulin, as well as small molecule allosteric agonist 6,7-dichloro-2-methylsulfonyl-3-tert-butylaminoquinoxaline (compound 2). Lys-288, Cys-296, Trp-297, and Asn-300 were globally important for peptide signaling and also had critical roles in governing signal bias of the receptor. Peptide-specific effects on relative efficacy and signal bias were most commonly observed for residues 301-305, although R299A mutation also caused significantly different effects for individual peptides. Met-303 was more important for exendin-4 and oxyntomodulin action than those of GLP-1 peptides. Globally, ECL2 mutation was more detrimental to exendin-4-mediated Ca(2+)i release than GLP-1(7-36)-NH(2), providing additional evidence for subtle differences in receptor activation by these two peptides. Unlike peptide activation of the GLP-1R, ECL2 mutations had only limited impact on compound 2 mediated cAMP and pERK responses, consistent with this ligand having a distinct mechanism for receptor activation. These data suggest a critical role of ECL2 of the GLP-1R in the activation transition of the receptor by peptide agonists.

AB - The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is a prototypical family B G protein-coupled receptor that exhibits physiologically important pleiotropic coupling and ligand-dependent signal bias. In our accompanying article (Koole, C., Wootten, D., Simms, J., Miller, L. J., Christopoulos, A., and Sexton, P. M. (2012) J. Biol. Chem. 287, 3642-3658), we demonstrate, through alanine-scanning mutagenesis, a key role for extracellular loop (ECL) 2 of the receptor in propagating activation transition mediated by GLP-1 peptides that occurs in a peptide- and pathway-dependent manner for cAMP formation, intracellular (Ca(2+)(i)) mobilization, and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (pERK1/2). In this study, we examine the effect of ECL2 mutations on the binding and signaling of the peptide mimetics, exendin-4 and oxyntomodulin, as well as small molecule allosteric agonist 6,7-dichloro-2-methylsulfonyl-3-tert-butylaminoquinoxaline (compound 2). Lys-288, Cys-296, Trp-297, and Asn-300 were globally important for peptide signaling and also had critical roles in governing signal bias of the receptor. Peptide-specific effects on relative efficacy and signal bias were most commonly observed for residues 301-305, although R299A mutation also caused significantly different effects for individual peptides. Met-303 was more important for exendin-4 and oxyntomodulin action than those of GLP-1 peptides. Globally, ECL2 mutation was more detrimental to exendin-4-mediated Ca(2+)i release than GLP-1(7-36)-NH(2), providing additional evidence for subtle differences in receptor activation by these two peptides. Unlike peptide activation of the GLP-1R, ECL2 mutations had only limited impact on compound 2 mediated cAMP and pERK responses, consistent with this ligand having a distinct mechanism for receptor activation. These data suggest a critical role of ECL2 of the GLP-1R in the activation transition of the receptor by peptide agonists.

UR - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22147709

U2 - 10.1074/jbc.M111.309369

DO - 10.1074/jbc.M111.309369

M3 - Article

VL - 287

SP - 3659

EP - 3673

JO - Journal of Biological Chemistry

JF - Journal of Biological Chemistry

SN - 1083-351X

IS - 6

ER -