In this chapter, we review and critique the literature on school leadership preparation and evidence use. The chapter is organized into three sections. In “What is Evidence and What is evidence Use?” we explore distinctions in the ways that scholars and practitioners have come to conceptualize evidence use and consider the implications of various definitions for leadership practice. In the second section, “School Leadership Preparation and Evidence Use,” we examine various ways that programs around the world approach training prospective or sitting school leaders in pre-service programmes. This includes university-based programs, district/department/state/national delivered programmes, those offered by private providers and partnerships between these various stakeholders. In doing so, we look both at program design and program outcomes. The third section, “Evidence in Use: How Principals Use Evidence to Make Decisions”, we review and interrogate research that investigates this phenomenon, paying special attention to effective and ineffective strategies. The chapter concludes with recommendations for pre-service and in-service development in relation to leadership and evidence use for the public good.