In a study on the genetics of resistance to schistosomiasis in WEHI 129/J mice, susceptibility to either Schistosoma mansoni or Schistosoma japonicum was shown to be unequivocally dominant in F1 hybrid crosses between genetically resistant WEHI 129/J and susceptible BALB/c mice. The operation of only 1 or 2 genes in the expression of resistance to S. mansoni was suggested by backcross analysis. Thus, approximately 25% of (BALB/c x WEHI 129/J) F1 x WEHI 129/J mice were resistant to S. mansoni infection, whereas resistance was manifest in approximately 50% of WEHI 129/J mice. The data are consistent with resistance being controlled by 1 recessive gene having 50% penetrance. We also report that 129/J mice obtained directly from the Jackson Laboratories (Bar Harbor, Maine) (designated JAX 129/J), differ from locally bred WEHI 129/J in being entirely susceptible to S. mansoni infection. However, both WEHI 129/J and JAX 129/J are relatively resistant to S. japonicum infection.