Scale development procedures in the context of online consumers: key recommendations

Omkar Dastane, Chai Lee Goi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review


Scales are developed with rigorous theoretical and statistical procedures, and they play a paramount role in the predictions of the outcome of constructs. However, it was found in the extant literature that the development of several scales was done without adherence to standard practices. This article aims to critically review the procedures used for the scales developed in the context of online consumers, highlight limitations, discuss their implications, and recommend the best practices for future research. Scale development studies published in journals indexed in reputed international databases were selected for meta-synthesis. The present study analysis was divided according to the primary stages of the scale development process namely development, data collection, analysis, and reporting. Common issues, such as unsuitable qualitative analysis methods, improper sampling technique, sample size, sample composition, and non-adherence to the reporting standards were recorded. At the end of this study, 15 recommendations were formulated, which would help strengthen the future scale development process in the context of online consumers.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages25
JournalBusiness Perspectives and Research
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • critical review
  • meta-synthesis
  • online consumers
  • research methodology
  • Scale development

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