Scalable video multicast using expanding window fountain codes

Dejan Vukobratović, Vladimir Stankoyić, Dino Sejdinović, Lina Stanković, Zixiang Xiong

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92 Citations (Scopus)


Fountain codes were introduced as an efficient and universal forward error correction (FEC) solution for data multicast over lossy packet networks. They nave recently been proposed for large scale multimedia content delivery in practical multimedia distribution systems. However, standard fountain codes, such as LT or Raptor codes, are not designed to meet unequal error protection (UEP) requirements typical in real-time scalable video multicast applications. In this paper, we propose recently introduced UEP expanding window fountain (EWF) codes as a flexible and efficient solution for real-time scalable video multicast. We demonstrate that the design flexibility and UEP performance make EWF codes ideally suited for this scenario, i.e., EWF codes offer a number of design parameters to be "tuned" at the server side to meet the different reception criteria of heterogeneous receivers. The performance analysis using both analytical results and simulation experiments of H.264 scalable video coding (SVC) multicast to heterogeneous receiver classes confirms the flexibility and efficiency of the proposed EWF-based FEC solution.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5235150
Pages (from-to)1094-1104
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Fountain codes
  • H264 SVC
  • Scalable video multicast
  • Unequal error protection

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