Salt-sensitive ileal microbiota plays a role in atrial natriuretic peptide deficiency-induced cardiac injury

Siqi Li, Sishuo Chen, Min Nie, Lijing Wen, Bin Zou, Lingyu Zhang, Jingzhou Xie, Hooi-Leng Ser, Learn-Han Lee, Shunyi Wang, Caixia Lin, Janak L. Pathak, Weijie Zhou, Ji Miao, Lijing Wang, Lingyun Zheng

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Abstract

Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) activity deficiency contributes to salt-sensitive hypertension in humans and mice. However, the role of ileal microbiota in salt sensitivity in ANP deficiency-related cardiac injury has not been investigated yet. This study used ANP−/− mice to analyze the role of the salt-sensitive ileal microbiome on cardiac injury. ANP−/− mice showed an increase in blood pressure (BP), the heart weight/body weight (HW/BW) ratio, and cardiac hypertrophy compared with wild-type (WT) mice. ANP deficiency did not impact the histological structure but reduced occludin expression in the ileum. Antibiotics significantly relieved BP and cardiac hypertrophy in ANP−/− mice. A high-salt diet (HSD) increased BP, the HW/BW ratio, and cardiac hypertrophy/fibrosis in WT and ANP−/− mice, and an HSD treatment in ANP−/− mice exacerbated these cardiac parameters. The HSD markedly decreased muscularis layer thickening, villus length, and numbers of Paneth and goblet cells in the ileum of WT and ANP−/− mice. Furthermore, the HSD increased the level of TLR4 and IL-1β in ANP−/− mice ileum compared with WT mice. Antibiotics reduced the HW/BW ratio, cardiac hypertrophy/fibrosis, and the level of TLR4 and IL-1β in the ileum, and rescued the muscularis layer thickening, villus length, and numbers of Paneth and goblet cells in the ileum of HSD-ANP−/− mice. Importantly, ANP deficiency induced the colonization of Burkholderiales bacterium YL45, Lactobacillus johnsonii, and Lactobacillus reuteri in the ileum on the NSD diet, which was only observed in HSD-induced WT mice but not in WT mice on the NSD. Besides, the HSD significantly enhanced the sum of the percentage of the colonization of Burkholderiales bacterium YL45, Lactobacillus johnsonii, and Lactobacillus reuteri in the ileum of ANP−/− mice. Ileal microbiota transfer (IMT) from ANP−/− mice to healthy C57BL/6J mice drove Lactobacillus johnsonii and Lactobacillus reuteri colonization in the ileum, which manifested an increase in BP, the HW/BW ratio, cardiac hypertrophy, and ileal pathology compared with IMT from WT mice. The HSD in C57BL/6J mice with IMT from ANP−/− mice drove the colonization of Burkholderiales bacterium YL45, Lactobacillus johnsonii, and Lactobacillus reuteri in the ileum and further exacerbated the cardiac and ileal pathology. Our results suggest that salt-sensitive ileal microbiota is probably related to ANP deficiency-induced cardiac injury.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3129
Number of pages18
JournalNutrients
Volume14
Issue number15
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2022

Keywords

  • ANP deficiency
  • cardiac injury
  • ileal microbiota transplantation
  • salt-sensitive microbiota

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