Nonstructural protein 4 (NSP4), encoded by rotavirus, exhibits various properties linked to viral pathogenesis, including enterotoxic activity. A recent study (O. V. Kavanagh et al., Vaccine 28:3106-3111, 2010) indicated that NSP4 also has adjuvant properties, suggesting a possible role in the innate immune response to rotavirus infection. We report here that NSP4 purified from the medium of rotavirus-infected Caco-2 cells triggers the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines from macrophage-like THP-1 cells and nitric oxide from murine RAW 264.7 cells. Secretion is accompanied by the stimulation of p38 and JNK mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor NF-kappaB. NSP4 triggered the secretion of cytokines from murine macrophages derived from wild-type but not MyD88(-/-) or Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2(-/-)) mice and induced secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8) from human embryonic kidney cells transfected with TLR2 but not TLR4. Our studies identify NSP4 as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) encoded by rotavirus and provide a mechanism for the production of proinflammatory cytokines associated with the clinical symptoms of infection in humans and animals.