The copper-transporting P-type ATPases (Cu-ATPases), ATP7A and ATP7B, are essential for the regulation of intracellular copper homeostasis. In this report we describe new roles for glutathione (GSH) and glutaredoxin1 (GRX1) in Cu homeostasis through their regulation of Cu-ATPase activity. GRX1 is a thiol oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reversible reduction of GSH-mixed disulfides to their respective sulfhydryls (deglutathionylation). Here, we demonstrated that glutathionylation of the Cu-ATPases and their interaction with GRX1 were affected by alterations in Cu levels. The data support our hypothesis that the Cu-ATPases serve as substrates for Cu-dependent GRX1-mediated deglutathionylation. This in turn liberates the Cu-ATPase cysteinyl thiol groups for Cu binding and transport. GSH depletion experiments led to reversible inhibition of the Cu-ATPases that correlated with effects on intracellular Cu levels and GRX1 activity. Finally, knockdown of GRX1 expression resulted in an increase in intracellular Cu accumulation. Together, these data directly implicate GSH and GRX1 with important new roles in redox regulation of the Cu-ATPases, through modulation of Cu binding by the Cu-ATPase cysteine motifs.