Topologically protected pseudospin transport, analogous to the quantum spin Hall effect, cannot be strictly implemented for photons and in general bosons because of the lack of symmetry-protected pseudospins. Here we show that the required protection can be provided by the real-space topological excitation of an interacting quantum fluid: a quantum vortex. We consider a Bose-Einstein condensate at the Γ point of the Brillouin zone of a quantum valley Hall system based on two staggered honeycomb lattices. We demonstrate the existence of a coupling between the vortex winding and the valley of the bulk Bloch band. This leads to chiral vortex propagation on each side of the zigzag interface between two regions of inverted staggering. The topological protection provided by the vortex winding prevents valley pseudospin mixing and resonant backscattering, allowing a truly topologically protected valley pseudospin transport.