Robust fingerprint construction based on multiple path loss model (M-PLM) for indoor localization

Yun Fen Yong, Chee Keong Tan, Ian Kim Teck Tan, Su Wei Tan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


A robust radio map is essential in implementing a fingerprint-based indoor positioning system (IPS). However, the offline site survey to manually construct the radio map is time-consuming and labour-intensive. Various interpolation techniques have been proposed to infer the virtual fingerprints to reduce the time and effort required for offline site surveys. This paper presents a novel fingerprint interpolator using a multi-path loss model (M-PLM) to create the virtual fingerprints from the collected sample data based on different signal paths from different access points (APs). Based on the historical signal data, the poor signal paths are identified using their standard deviations. The proposed method reduces the positioning errors by smoothing out the wireless signal fluctuations and stabilizing the signals for those poor signal paths. By considering multipath signal propagations from different APs, the inherent noise from these signal paths can be alleviated. Firstly, locations of the signal data with standard deviations higher than the threshold are identified. The new fingerprints are then generated at these locations based on the proposed M-PLM interpolation function to replace the old fingerprints. The proposed technique interpolates virtual fingerprints based on good signal paths with more stable signals to improve the positioning performance. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme enhances the positioning accuracy by up to 44% compared to the conventional interpolation techniques such as the Inverse Distance Weighting, Kriging, and single Path Loss Model. As a result, we can overcome the site survey problems for IPS by building an accurate radio map with more reliable signals to improve indoor positioning performance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1801-1818
Number of pages18
JournalComputers, Materials and Continua
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • fingerprinting
  • indoor positioning system
  • interpolation
  • Path loss model
  • radio map

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