We develop the a posteriori error analysis of three mixed finite element formulations for rotation-based equations in elasticity, poroelasticity, and interfacial elasticity-poroelasticity. The discretizations use $H^1$-conforming finite elements of degree $k+1$ for displacement and fluid pressure, and discontinuous piecewise polynomials of degree $k$ for rotation vector, total pressure, and elastic pressure. Residual-based estimators are constructed, and upper and lower bounds (up to data oscillations) for all global estimators are rigorously derived. The methods are all robust with respect to the model parameters (in particular, the Lamé constants); they are valid in 2D and 3D, and also for arbitrary polynomial degree $k\geq 0$. The error behavior predicted by the theoretical analysis is then demonstrated numerically on a set of computational examples including different geometries on which we perform adaptive mesh refinement guided by the a posteriori error estimators.