RNA-Seq analysis of chikungunya virus infection and identification of granzyme A as a major promoter of arthritic inflammation

Jane A C Wilson, Natalie A. Prow, Wayne A. Schroder, Jonathan J. Ellis, Helen E. Cumming, Linden J. Gearing, Yee Suan Poo, Adam Taylor, Paul J. Hertzog, Francesca Di Giallonardo, Linda Hueston, Roger Le Grand, Bing Tang, Thuy T. Le, Joy Gardner, Suresh Mahalingam, Pierre Roques, Phillip I. Bird, Andreas Suhrbier

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Abstract

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic alphavirus causing epidemics of acute and chronic arthritic disease. Herein we describe a comprehensive RNA-Seq analysis of feet and lymph nodes at peak viraemia (day 2 post infection), acute arthritis (day 7) and chronic disease (day 30) in the CHIKV adult wild-type mouse model. Genes previously shown to be up-regulated in CHIKV patients were also up-regulated in the mouse model. CHIKV sequence information was also obtained with up to ≈8% of the reads mapping to the viral genome; however, no adaptive viral genome changes were apparent. Although day 2, 7 and 30 represent distinct stages of infection and disease, there was a pronounced overlap in up-regulated host genes and pathways. Type I interferon response genes (IRGs) represented up to ≈50% of up-regulated genes, even after loss of type I interferon induction on days 7 and 30. Bioinformatic analyses suggested a number of interferon response factors were primarily responsible for maintaining type I IRG induction. A group of genes prominent in the RNA-Seq analysis and hitherto unexplored in viral arthropathies were granzymes A, B and K. Granzyme A-/-and to a lesser extent granzyme K-/-, but not granzyme B-/-, mice showed a pronounced reduction in foot swelling and arthritis, with analysis of granzyme A-/-mice showing no reductions in viral loads but reduced NK and T cell infiltrates post CHIKV infection. Treatment with Serpinb6b, a granzyme A inhibitor, also reduced arthritic inflammation in wild-type mice. In non-human primates circulating granzyme A levels were elevated after CHIKV infection, with the increase correlating with viral load. Elevated granzyme A levels were also seen in a small cohort of human CHIKV patients. Taken together these results suggest granzyme A is an important driver of arthritic inflammation and a potential target for therapy. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00281294

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere1006155
Number of pages32
JournalPLoS Pathogens
Volume13
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 16 Feb 2017

Keywords

  • chikungunya infection
  • mammalian genomics
  • lymph nodes
  • mouse models
  • chikungunya virus
  • transcription factors
  • interferons
  • viremia

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