Risk-Based Screening Tools to Optimise HIV Testing Services: a Systematic Review

J. J. Ong, K. Coulthard, C. Quinn, M. J. Tang, T. Huynh, M. S. Jamil, R. Baggaley, C. Johnson

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose of review: Effective ways to diagnose the remaining people living with HIV who do not know their status are a global priority. We reviewed the use of risk-based tools, a set of criteria to identify individuals who would not otherwise be tested (screen in) or excluded people from testing (screen out). Recent findings: Recent studies suggest that there may be value in risk-based tools to improve testing efficiency (i.e. identifying those who need to be tested). However, there has not been any systematic reviews to synthesize these studies. Summary: We identified 18,238 citations, and 71 were included. The risk-based tools identified were most commonly from high-income (51%) and low HIV (<5%) prevalence countries (73%). The majority were for “screening in” (70%), with the highest performance tools related to identifying MSM with acute HIV. Screening in tools may be helpful in settings where it is not feasible or recommended to offer testing routinely. Caution is needed for screening out tools, where there is a trade-off between reducing costs of testing with missing cases of people living with HIV.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)154–165
Number of pages12
JournalCurrent HIV/AIDS Reports
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 11 Feb 2022


  • HIV
  • Screening tool
  • Testing

Cite this