Revolutionizing Cancer Treatment: Unleashing the Power of Viral Vaccines, Monoclonal Antibodies, and Proteolysis-Targeting Chimeras in the New Era of Immunotherapy

Popat Mohite, Vaishnavi Yadav, Ramdas Pandhare, Swastika Maitra, Fayez M. Saleh, Rasha Mohammed Saleem, Hamdan S. Al-Malky, Vinoth Kumarasamy, Vetriselvan Subramaniyan, Mohamed M. Abdel-Daim, Daniel E. Uti

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


In the realm of cancer immunotherapy, a profound evolution has ushered in sophisticated strategies that encompass both traditional cancer vaccines and emerging viral vaccines. This comprehensive Review offers an in-depth exploration of the methodologies, clinical applications, success stories, and future prospects of these approaches. Traditional cancer vaccines have undergone significant advancements utilizing diverse modalities such as proteins, peptides, and dendritic cells. More recent innovations have focused on the physiological mechanisms enabling the human body to recognize and combat precancerous and malignant cells, introducing specific markers like peptide-based anticancer vaccines targeting tumor-associated antigens. Moreover, cancer viral vaccines, leveraging engineered viruses to stimulate immune responses against specific antigens, exhibit substantial promise in inducing robust and enduring immunity. Integration with complementary therapeutic methods, including monoclonal antibodies, adjuvants, and radiation therapy, has not only improved survival rates but also deepened our understanding of viral virulence. Recent strides in vaccine design, encompassing oncolytic viruses, virus-like particles, and viral vectors, mark the frontier of innovation. While these advances hold immense potential, critical challenges must be addressed, such as strategies for immune evasion, potential off-target effects, and the optimization of viral genomes. In the landscape of immunotherapy, noteworthy innovations take the spotlight from the use of immunomodulatory agents for the enhancement of innate and adaptive immune collaboration. The emergence of proteolysis-targeting chimeras (PROTACs) as precision tools for cancer therapy is particularly exciting. With a focus on various cancers, from melanoma to formidable solid tumors, this Review critically assesses types of cancer vaccines, mechanisms, barriers in vaccine therapy, vaccine efficacy, safety profiles, and immune-related adverse events, providing a nuanced perspective on the underlying mechanisms involving cytotoxic T cells, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells. The Review also underscores the transformative potential of cutting-edge technologies such as clinical studies, molecular sequencing, and artificial intelligence in advancing the field of cancer vaccines. These tools not only expedite progress but also emphasize the multidimensional and rapidly evolving nature of this research, affirming its profound significance in the broader context of cancer therapy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7277-7295
Number of pages19
JournalACS Omega
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2024

Cite this