Some of the starch consumed by humans is not digested in the small intestine. Such starch, known as resistant starch, is fermented in the large intestine and leads to the production of short chain fatty acids. Increased consumption of resistant starch is associated with improved cardio-vascular health. A high proportion of amylose in the starch consumed is correlated with increased resistant starch but other unknown aspects of starch structure may also influence the digestibility of starch. Detailed investigation of the starch biosynthetic pathway has revealed that reducing the activity of specific isoforms of branching enzymes and starch synthases can lead to increased amylose. Methods to alter the expression of and detect mutations in targeted genes involved are discussed.