The 2019 meeting of the Society for Reproductive Biology (SRB) provided a platform for the dissemination of new knowledge and innovations to improve reproductive health in humans, enhance animal breeding efficiency and understand the effect of the environment on reproductive processes. The effects of environment and lifestyle on fertility and animal behaviour are emerging as the most important modern issues facing reproductive health. Here, we summarise key highlights from recent work on endocrine-disrupting chemicals and diet- and lifestyle-induced metabolic changes and how these factors affect reproduction. This is particularly important to discuss in the context of potential effects on the reproductive potential that may be imparted to future generations of humans and animals. In addition to key summaries of new work in the male and female reproductive tract and on the health of the placenta, for the first time the SRB meeting included a workshop on endometriosis. This was an important opportunity for researchers, healthcare professionals and patient advocates to unite and provide critical updates on efforts to reduce the effect of this chronic disease and to improve the welfare of the women it affects. These new findings and directions are captured in this review.