In the past two decades, scholars have illustrated how important representation is to understanding the dynamics of world politics. However, there is a distinct absence in the literature surrounding how representations of one state by another influence foreign policymaking behaviour. This article fills a gap in knowledge by offering an empirical examination of the role that representation and recognition play. I contribute to these discussions through an examination of the representations evident within the Iran–US relationship. I argue that binary representations of Self and Other inform the identity narratives of each state and how they are recognised. Furthermore, these representations contribute to misrecognition, which creates a feeling of disrespect, exacerbating tensions between Iran and the US as they engage in nuclear negotiations.
- Foreign policy