Repeated mild lateral fluid percussion brain injury in the rat causes cumulative long-term behavioral impairments, neuroinflammation, and cortical loss in an animal model of repeated concussion

Sandy R. Shultz, Feng Bao, Vanessa Omana, Charlotte Chiu, Arthur Brown, Donald Peter Cain

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

There is growing evidence that repeated brain concussion can result in cumulative and long-term behavioral symptoms, neuropathological changes, and neurodegeneration. Little is known about the factors and mechanisms that contribute to these effects. The current study addresses the need to investigate and better understand the effects of repeated concussion through the development of an animal model. Male Long-Evans rats received 1, 3, or 5 mild lateral fluid percussion injuries or sham injuries spaced 5 days apart. After the final injury, rats received either a short (24h) or long (8 weeks) post-injury recovery period, followed by a detailed behavioral analysis consisting of tests for rodent anxiety-like behavior, cognition, social behavior, sensorimotor function, and depression-like behavior. Brains were examined immunohistochemically to assess neuroinflammation and cortical damage. Rats given 1, 3, or 5 mild percussion injuries displayed significant short-term cognitive impairments. Rats given repeated mild percussion injuries displayed significantly worse short- and long-term cognitive impairments. Rats given 5 mild percussion injuries also displayed increased anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. Neuropathological analysis revealed short-term neuroinflammation in 3-injury rats, and both short- and long-term neuroinflammation in 5-injury rats. There was also evidence that repeated injuries induced short- and long-term cortical damage. These cumulative and long-term changes are consistent with findings in human patients suffering repeated brain concussion, provide support for the use of repeated mild lateral fluid percussion injuries to study repeated concussion in the rat, and suggest that neuroinflammation may be important for understanding the cumulative and chronic effects of repeated concussion.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)281-294
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Neurotrauma
Volume29
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 20 Jan 2012
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • behavior
  • inflammation
  • learning and memory
  • models of injury
  • traumatic brain injury

Cite this

@article{3dde1306fbe34f0ca849ca15be462221,
title = "Repeated mild lateral fluid percussion brain injury in the rat causes cumulative long-term behavioral impairments, neuroinflammation, and cortical loss in an animal model of repeated concussion",
abstract = "There is growing evidence that repeated brain concussion can result in cumulative and long-term behavioral symptoms, neuropathological changes, and neurodegeneration. Little is known about the factors and mechanisms that contribute to these effects. The current study addresses the need to investigate and better understand the effects of repeated concussion through the development of an animal model. Male Long-Evans rats received 1, 3, or 5 mild lateral fluid percussion injuries or sham injuries spaced 5 days apart. After the final injury, rats received either a short (24h) or long (8 weeks) post-injury recovery period, followed by a detailed behavioral analysis consisting of tests for rodent anxiety-like behavior, cognition, social behavior, sensorimotor function, and depression-like behavior. Brains were examined immunohistochemically to assess neuroinflammation and cortical damage. Rats given 1, 3, or 5 mild percussion injuries displayed significant short-term cognitive impairments. Rats given repeated mild percussion injuries displayed significantly worse short- and long-term cognitive impairments. Rats given 5 mild percussion injuries also displayed increased anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. Neuropathological analysis revealed short-term neuroinflammation in 3-injury rats, and both short- and long-term neuroinflammation in 5-injury rats. There was also evidence that repeated injuries induced short- and long-term cortical damage. These cumulative and long-term changes are consistent with findings in human patients suffering repeated brain concussion, provide support for the use of repeated mild lateral fluid percussion injuries to study repeated concussion in the rat, and suggest that neuroinflammation may be important for understanding the cumulative and chronic effects of repeated concussion.",
keywords = "behavior, inflammation, learning and memory, models of injury, traumatic brain injury",
author = "Shultz, {Sandy R.} and Feng Bao and Vanessa Omana and Charlotte Chiu and Arthur Brown and Cain, {Donald Peter}",
year = "2012",
month = "1",
day = "20",
doi = "10.1089/neu.2011.2123",
language = "English",
volume = "29",
pages = "281--294",
journal = "Journal of Neurotrauma",
issn = "0897-7151",
publisher = "Mary Ann Liebert Inc",
number = "2",

}

Repeated mild lateral fluid percussion brain injury in the rat causes cumulative long-term behavioral impairments, neuroinflammation, and cortical loss in an animal model of repeated concussion. / Shultz, Sandy R.; Bao, Feng; Omana, Vanessa; Chiu, Charlotte; Brown, Arthur; Cain, Donald Peter.

In: Journal of Neurotrauma, Vol. 29, No. 2, 20.01.2012, p. 281-294.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Repeated mild lateral fluid percussion brain injury in the rat causes cumulative long-term behavioral impairments, neuroinflammation, and cortical loss in an animal model of repeated concussion

AU - Shultz, Sandy R.

AU - Bao, Feng

AU - Omana, Vanessa

AU - Chiu, Charlotte

AU - Brown, Arthur

AU - Cain, Donald Peter

PY - 2012/1/20

Y1 - 2012/1/20

N2 - There is growing evidence that repeated brain concussion can result in cumulative and long-term behavioral symptoms, neuropathological changes, and neurodegeneration. Little is known about the factors and mechanisms that contribute to these effects. The current study addresses the need to investigate and better understand the effects of repeated concussion through the development of an animal model. Male Long-Evans rats received 1, 3, or 5 mild lateral fluid percussion injuries or sham injuries spaced 5 days apart. After the final injury, rats received either a short (24h) or long (8 weeks) post-injury recovery period, followed by a detailed behavioral analysis consisting of tests for rodent anxiety-like behavior, cognition, social behavior, sensorimotor function, and depression-like behavior. Brains were examined immunohistochemically to assess neuroinflammation and cortical damage. Rats given 1, 3, or 5 mild percussion injuries displayed significant short-term cognitive impairments. Rats given repeated mild percussion injuries displayed significantly worse short- and long-term cognitive impairments. Rats given 5 mild percussion injuries also displayed increased anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. Neuropathological analysis revealed short-term neuroinflammation in 3-injury rats, and both short- and long-term neuroinflammation in 5-injury rats. There was also evidence that repeated injuries induced short- and long-term cortical damage. These cumulative and long-term changes are consistent with findings in human patients suffering repeated brain concussion, provide support for the use of repeated mild lateral fluid percussion injuries to study repeated concussion in the rat, and suggest that neuroinflammation may be important for understanding the cumulative and chronic effects of repeated concussion.

AB - There is growing evidence that repeated brain concussion can result in cumulative and long-term behavioral symptoms, neuropathological changes, and neurodegeneration. Little is known about the factors and mechanisms that contribute to these effects. The current study addresses the need to investigate and better understand the effects of repeated concussion through the development of an animal model. Male Long-Evans rats received 1, 3, or 5 mild lateral fluid percussion injuries or sham injuries spaced 5 days apart. After the final injury, rats received either a short (24h) or long (8 weeks) post-injury recovery period, followed by a detailed behavioral analysis consisting of tests for rodent anxiety-like behavior, cognition, social behavior, sensorimotor function, and depression-like behavior. Brains were examined immunohistochemically to assess neuroinflammation and cortical damage. Rats given 1, 3, or 5 mild percussion injuries displayed significant short-term cognitive impairments. Rats given repeated mild percussion injuries displayed significantly worse short- and long-term cognitive impairments. Rats given 5 mild percussion injuries also displayed increased anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. Neuropathological analysis revealed short-term neuroinflammation in 3-injury rats, and both short- and long-term neuroinflammation in 5-injury rats. There was also evidence that repeated injuries induced short- and long-term cortical damage. These cumulative and long-term changes are consistent with findings in human patients suffering repeated brain concussion, provide support for the use of repeated mild lateral fluid percussion injuries to study repeated concussion in the rat, and suggest that neuroinflammation may be important for understanding the cumulative and chronic effects of repeated concussion.

KW - behavior

KW - inflammation

KW - learning and memory

KW - models of injury

KW - traumatic brain injury

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84856444165&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1089/neu.2011.2123

DO - 10.1089/neu.2011.2123

M3 - Article

VL - 29

SP - 281

EP - 294

JO - Journal of Neurotrauma

JF - Journal of Neurotrauma

SN - 0897-7151

IS - 2

ER -