Renal participation of myeloperoxidase in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated glomerulonephritis
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Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is an important neutrophil lysosomal enzyme, a major autoantigen, and a potential mediator of tissue injury in MPO-ANCA-associated vasculitis (MPO-AAV) and glomerulonephritis. Here we examined MPO deposition in kidney biopsies from 47 patients with MPO-AAV. Leukocyte accumulation and fibrin deposition consistent with cell-mediated immunity was a major feature. Tubulointerstitial macrophage, CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell, and neutrophil numbers correlated with low presenting eGFR. MPO was not detected in kidneys from patients with minimal change or thin basement membrane disease, but was prominent in glomerular, periglomerular, and tubulointerstitial regions in MPO-AAV. Extracellular MPO released from leukocytes was pronounced in all MPO-AAV patients. Similar numbers of neutrophils and macrophages expressed MPO in the kidneys, but colocalization studies identified neutrophils as the major source of extracellular MPO. Extraleukocyte MPO was prominent in neutrophil extracellular traps in the majority of patients; most of which had traps in half or more glomeruli. These traps were associated with more neutrophils and more MPO within glomeruli. Glomerular MPO-containing macrophages generated extracellular trap-like structures. MPO also localized to endothelial cells and podocytes. The presence of the most active glomerular lesions (both segmental necrosis and cellular crescents) correlated with intraglomerular CD4+ cells and MPO+ macrophages. Thus, cellular and extracellular MPO may cause glomerular and interstitial injury.