Renal oxygenation during the early stages of adenine-induced chronic kidney disease

Md Mahbub Ullah, Connie P. C. Ow, Lucinda M. Hilliard Krause, Roger G. Evans

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4 Citations (Scopus)


To assess whether renal hypoxia is an early event in adenine-induced chronic kidney disease, adenine (100 mg) or its vehicle was administered to male Sprague-Dawley rats by daily oral gavage for 7 days. Kidney oxygenation was assessed by 1) blood oximetry and Clark electrode in thiobutabarbital-anesthetized rats, 2) radiotelemetry in unanesthetized rats, and 3) expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and HIF-2α protein. After 7 days of treatment, under anesthesia, renal O2 delivery was 51% less, whereas renal O2 consumption was 65% less, in adenine-treated rats than in vehicle-treated rats. Tissue Po2 measured by Clark electrode was similar in the renal cortex but 44% less in the medulla of adenine-treated rats than in that of vehicle-treated rats. In contrast, in unanesthetized rats, both cortical and medullary tissue Po2 measured by radiotelemetry remained stable across 7 days of adenine treatment. Notably, anesthesia and laparotomy led to greater reductions in medullary tissue Po2 measured by radiotelemetry in rats treated with adenine (37%) than in vehicle-treated rats (16%), possibly explaining differences between our observations with Clark electrodes and radiotelemetry. Renal expression of HIF-1α was less after 7 days of adenine treatment than after vehicle treatment, whereas expression of HIF-2α did not differ significantly between the two groups. Renal dysfunction was evident after 7 days of adenine treatment, with glomerular filtration rate 65% less and serum creatinine concentration 183% greater in adenine-treated rats than in vehicle-treated rats. Renal cortical tissue hypoxia may not precede renal dysfunction in adenine-induced chronic kidney disease and so may not be an early pathological feature in this model.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)F1189-F1200
Number of pages12
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology-Renal Physiology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2019


  • chronic kidney disease
  • crystalline nephropathy
  • hypoxia
  • radiotelemetry
  • renal dysfunction
  • renal tissue Po2

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