Removal of temperature effect in impedance-based damage detection using the cointegration method

Xiujuan Li, Wenzhong Qu, Li Xiao, Ye Lu

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4 Citations (Scopus)


Electromechanical impedance technique has been widely used in the area of structural health monitoring. However, both damage and variation in environmental temperature can cause the changes in electromechanical impedance signature, which may cause false damage diagnosis. The temperature effect on the electromechanical impedance-based method has been one of its main drawbacks in practical application. This article proposes a new approach based on cointegration to eliminate temperature interference in the electromechanical impedance technique. The augmented Dickey–Fuller test is used to analyze the stationary characteristics of the time series and determine the degree of non-stationarity. The Johansen test is used to obtain the cointegrating residuals instead of the direct electromechanical impedance responses for damage detection. The proposed method is verified on the undamaged and damaged steel plates with the consideration of environmental temperature variations. The damage detection was based on the electromechanical impedance technique in which the peak frequency is chosen as a cointegrated variable. The experimental results show that the cointegration method can remove the temperature effect on the electromechanical impedance responses, and the cointegrating residuals are effective indices to indicate the occurrence of damage.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2189–2197
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures
Issue number15
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2019


  • cointegration
  • damage detection
  • electromechanical impedance
  • temperature effect

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