Remote extemporaneous compounding lab practical for pharmacy students during the COVID-19 pandemic

Juman Dujaili, Wee Kiat Ong, Bhuvan KC, Sarah E. Vordenberg, Ashlee N. Mattingly, Ronald F.S. Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review


Background and purpose: Due to COVID-19 movement restrictions, institutes of higher learning had to deliver pharmacy curricula remotely. One major challenge was teaching practical lab skills, such as extemporaneous compounding, remotely due to the need for hands-on learning and its associated logistical requirements. Educational activity and setting: We present the approach to remote extemporaneous compounding teaching taken by three pharmacy schools: Monash University Malaysia, University of Michigan, and University of Maryland. Prior to delivery, students were either supplied with or asked to procure a set of easily accessible ingredients and equipment to conduct the extemporaneous practicals from home. We conducted lessons remotely using both synchronous and asynchronous delivery, and demonstrated, taught, and assessed practical lab skills using video conferencing modalities. Findings: We successfully conducted remote teaching of extemporaneous compounding, where similar learning outcomes to the face-to-face implementation were achieved. At Monash University Malaysia, > 90% of students responding to the post-activity surveys found the remote extemporaneous sessions useful for their learning, and qualitative comments supported these views. Mean scores from the remote extemporaneous labs in 2021 were similar to those when conducted physically in 2019, supporting the effectiveness of the approach. The different approaches attempted by the three institutions highlighted the flexibility in implementation that can be considered to achieve similar outcomes. Combining technology-based approaches with synchronous and asynchronous teaching and learning methods can successfully deliver extemporaneous compounding skills remotely.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)624-632
Number of pages9
JournalCurrents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2023


  • Extemporaneous compounding
  • Hybrid learning
  • Online laboratory practicals
  • Remote learning

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