Background: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) can be safely discontinued in chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CP-CML) patients who had achieved a sustained deep molecular response. Based on the results of discontinuation trials, recommendations regarding patient selection for a treatment-free remission (TFR) attempt had been proposed. The aims of this study were to evaluate the rate of patients eligible for TKI discontinuation and molecular recurrence-free survival (MRFS) after stop according to recommendations. Methods: Over a 10-year period, newly diagnosed CP-CML patients and treated with first-line TKI in the nine French participating centers were included. Eligibility to treatment discontinuation and MRFS were analyzed and compared according to selection criteria defined by recommendations and first-line treatments. Results: From January 2006 to December 2015, 398 patients were considered. Among them, 73% and 27% of patients received imatinib or either second or third generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors as frontline treatment, respectively. Considering the selection criteria defined by recommendations, up to 55% of the patients were selected as optimal candidates for treatment discontinuation. Overall 95/398 (24%) discontinued treatment. MRFS was 51.8% [95% CI 41.41–62.19] at 2 years and 43.8% [31.45–56.15] at 5 years. Patients receiving frontline second-generation TKI and fulfilling the eligibility criteria suggested by recommendations had the lowest probability of molecular relapse after TKI stop when compare to others. Conclusion: One third of CP-CML patients treated with TKI frontline fulfilled the selection criteria suggested by European LeukemiaNet TFR recommendations. Meeting selection criteria and second-generation TKI frontline were associated with the highest MRFS.
- molecular recurrence-free survival
- tyrosine kinase inhibitor discontinuation