Relating off-premises alcohol outlet density to intentional and unintentional injuries

Christopher Morrison, Karen Smith, Paul J. Gruenewald, William R. Ponicki, Juliet P. Lee, Peter Cameron

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)


Aims: This study investigated the hypotheses that (i) intentional and unintentional injuries occur more frequently in areas with greater density of off-premises alcohol outlets; and (ii) larger and chain outlets selling cheaper alcohol contribute more substantially to injury risk than smaller and independent outlets. Design: Ecological cross-sectional. Setting: From the 256 Statistical Area level 2 (SA2) census units in Melbourne, Australia, we selected a random sample of 62 units. There were 2119 Statistical Area level 1 (SA1) units nested within the selected SA2 units. Participants: The selected units contained 295 off-premises outlets. Measurements: Two independent observers conducted premises assessments in all off-premises outlets, assessing the volume of alcohol available for sale (paces of shelf space), price (least wine price) and other operating characteristics (chain versus independent, drive-through). Outlet counts, assessed outlet characteristics and other area characteristics (population density, median age, median income, retail zoning) were aggregated within SA1 units. Dependent variables were counts of ambulance attended intentional injuries (assaults, stabbings, shootings) and unintentional injuries (falls, crush injuries and object strikes). Findings: In univariable analyses, chain outlets were larger (r=0.383; P

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)56-64
Number of pages9
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2016


  • Alcohol outlets
  • Availability
  • Injury
  • Outlet density
  • Trauma

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