Regulation, formation, exposure, and treatment of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in swimming pool waters: a critical review

Linyan Yang, Xueming Chen, Qianhong She, Guomin Cao, Yongdi Liu, Victor W.C. Chang, Chuyang Y. Tang

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

The microbial safety of swimming pool waters (SPWs) becomes increasingly important with the popularity of swimming activities. Disinfection aiming at killing microbes in SPWs produces disinfection by-products (DBPs), which has attracted considerable public attentions due to their high frequency of occurrence, considerable concentrations and potent toxicity. We reviewed the latest research progress within the last four decades on the regulation, formation, exposure, and treatment of DBPs in the context of SPWs. This paper specifically discussed DBP regulations in different regions, formation mechanisms related with disinfectants, precursors and other various conditions, human exposure assessment reflected by biomarkers or epidemiological evidence, and the control and treatment of DBPs. Compared to drinking water with natural organic matter as the main organic precursor of DBPs, the additional human inputs (i.e., body fluids and personal care products) to SPWs make the water matrix more complicated and lead to the formation of more types and greater concentrations of DBPs. Dermal absorption and inhalation are two main exposure pathways for trihalomethanes while ingestion for haloacetic acids, reflected by DBP occurrence in human matrices including exhaled air, urine, blood, and plasma. Studies show that membrane filtration, advanced oxidation processes, biodegradation, thermal degradation, chemical reduction, and some hybrid processes are the potential DBP treatment technologies. The removal efficiency, possible mechanisms and future challenges of these DBP treatment methods are summarized in this review, which may facilitate their full-scale applications and provide potential directions for further research extension.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1039-1057
Number of pages19
JournalEnvironment International
Volume121
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2018

Keywords

  • DBP treatment
  • Disinfectants
  • Disinfection by-products (DBP)
  • Human exposure
  • Precursors

Cite this

Yang, Linyan ; Chen, Xueming ; She, Qianhong ; Cao, Guomin ; Liu, Yongdi ; Chang, Victor W.C. ; Tang, Chuyang Y. / Regulation, formation, exposure, and treatment of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in swimming pool waters : a critical review. In: Environment International. 2018 ; Vol. 121. pp. 1039-1057.
@article{0d33441320c640e89017ba4377a2cf44,
title = "Regulation, formation, exposure, and treatment of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in swimming pool waters: a critical review",
abstract = "The microbial safety of swimming pool waters (SPWs) becomes increasingly important with the popularity of swimming activities. Disinfection aiming at killing microbes in SPWs produces disinfection by-products (DBPs), which has attracted considerable public attentions due to their high frequency of occurrence, considerable concentrations and potent toxicity. We reviewed the latest research progress within the last four decades on the regulation, formation, exposure, and treatment of DBPs in the context of SPWs. This paper specifically discussed DBP regulations in different regions, formation mechanisms related with disinfectants, precursors and other various conditions, human exposure assessment reflected by biomarkers or epidemiological evidence, and the control and treatment of DBPs. Compared to drinking water with natural organic matter as the main organic precursor of DBPs, the additional human inputs (i.e., body fluids and personal care products) to SPWs make the water matrix more complicated and lead to the formation of more types and greater concentrations of DBPs. Dermal absorption and inhalation are two main exposure pathways for trihalomethanes while ingestion for haloacetic acids, reflected by DBP occurrence in human matrices including exhaled air, urine, blood, and plasma. Studies show that membrane filtration, advanced oxidation processes, biodegradation, thermal degradation, chemical reduction, and some hybrid processes are the potential DBP treatment technologies. The removal efficiency, possible mechanisms and future challenges of these DBP treatment methods are summarized in this review, which may facilitate their full-scale applications and provide potential directions for further research extension.",
keywords = "DBP treatment, Disinfectants, Disinfection by-products (DBP), Human exposure, Precursors",
author = "Linyan Yang and Xueming Chen and Qianhong She and Guomin Cao and Yongdi Liu and Chang, {Victor W.C.} and Tang, {Chuyang Y.}",
year = "2018",
month = "12",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.envint.2018.10.024",
language = "English",
volume = "121",
pages = "1039--1057",
journal = "Environmental International",
issn = "0160-4120",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

Regulation, formation, exposure, and treatment of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in swimming pool waters : a critical review. / Yang, Linyan; Chen, Xueming; She, Qianhong; Cao, Guomin; Liu, Yongdi; Chang, Victor W.C.; Tang, Chuyang Y.

In: Environment International, Vol. 121, 01.12.2018, p. 1039-1057.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Regulation, formation, exposure, and treatment of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in swimming pool waters

T2 - a critical review

AU - Yang, Linyan

AU - Chen, Xueming

AU - She, Qianhong

AU - Cao, Guomin

AU - Liu, Yongdi

AU - Chang, Victor W.C.

AU - Tang, Chuyang Y.

PY - 2018/12/1

Y1 - 2018/12/1

N2 - The microbial safety of swimming pool waters (SPWs) becomes increasingly important with the popularity of swimming activities. Disinfection aiming at killing microbes in SPWs produces disinfection by-products (DBPs), which has attracted considerable public attentions due to their high frequency of occurrence, considerable concentrations and potent toxicity. We reviewed the latest research progress within the last four decades on the regulation, formation, exposure, and treatment of DBPs in the context of SPWs. This paper specifically discussed DBP regulations in different regions, formation mechanisms related with disinfectants, precursors and other various conditions, human exposure assessment reflected by biomarkers or epidemiological evidence, and the control and treatment of DBPs. Compared to drinking water with natural organic matter as the main organic precursor of DBPs, the additional human inputs (i.e., body fluids and personal care products) to SPWs make the water matrix more complicated and lead to the formation of more types and greater concentrations of DBPs. Dermal absorption and inhalation are two main exposure pathways for trihalomethanes while ingestion for haloacetic acids, reflected by DBP occurrence in human matrices including exhaled air, urine, blood, and plasma. Studies show that membrane filtration, advanced oxidation processes, biodegradation, thermal degradation, chemical reduction, and some hybrid processes are the potential DBP treatment technologies. The removal efficiency, possible mechanisms and future challenges of these DBP treatment methods are summarized in this review, which may facilitate their full-scale applications and provide potential directions for further research extension.

AB - The microbial safety of swimming pool waters (SPWs) becomes increasingly important with the popularity of swimming activities. Disinfection aiming at killing microbes in SPWs produces disinfection by-products (DBPs), which has attracted considerable public attentions due to their high frequency of occurrence, considerable concentrations and potent toxicity. We reviewed the latest research progress within the last four decades on the regulation, formation, exposure, and treatment of DBPs in the context of SPWs. This paper specifically discussed DBP regulations in different regions, formation mechanisms related with disinfectants, precursors and other various conditions, human exposure assessment reflected by biomarkers or epidemiological evidence, and the control and treatment of DBPs. Compared to drinking water with natural organic matter as the main organic precursor of DBPs, the additional human inputs (i.e., body fluids and personal care products) to SPWs make the water matrix more complicated and lead to the formation of more types and greater concentrations of DBPs. Dermal absorption and inhalation are two main exposure pathways for trihalomethanes while ingestion for haloacetic acids, reflected by DBP occurrence in human matrices including exhaled air, urine, blood, and plasma. Studies show that membrane filtration, advanced oxidation processes, biodegradation, thermal degradation, chemical reduction, and some hybrid processes are the potential DBP treatment technologies. The removal efficiency, possible mechanisms and future challenges of these DBP treatment methods are summarized in this review, which may facilitate their full-scale applications and provide potential directions for further research extension.

KW - DBP treatment

KW - Disinfectants

KW - Disinfection by-products (DBP)

KW - Human exposure

KW - Precursors

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85055754337&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.envint.2018.10.024

DO - 10.1016/j.envint.2018.10.024

M3 - Review Article

VL - 121

SP - 1039

EP - 1057

JO - Environmental International

JF - Environmental International

SN - 0160-4120

ER -