Reflex release of vasopressin and renin in hemorrhage is enhanced by autonomic blockade

J. R. Oliver, Paul I. Korner, R. L. Woods, J. L. Zhu

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We determined the relationships during hemorrhage between nominal blood volume (BV) and 1) plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP), 2) plasma renin activity (PRA), and 3) mean arterial pressure (MAP). Conscious rabbits were studied under normal conditions and during total autonomic blockade (TAB) at bleeding rates of 2 and 4 ml/min. Normally, MAP was well maintained until BV had been reduced to ~65% of control (termed 65% BV) after which it fell abruptly. The threshold for a rise in AVP was 80-75% BV, followed by exponential rises to levels of 14 and 24 times control at the slow and fast rate of bleeding. PRA rose earlier in hemorrhage, but this rise was more gradual, to values at 60% BV of 5.5 and 7 times control at the two rates of bleeding. During TAB, MAP fell rapidly and both BV concentration curves were shifted to the left with the rises in AVP and PRA/unit ΔBV greater than normal; at 75% BV at each rate of hemorrhage, AVP and PRA had risen, respectively, to ~40 and 8 times control. Normally, the rises in the AVP and PRA (i.e., angiotensin II) concentrations were modest during the nonhypotensive phase, consistent with their minimal constrictor action observed in a parallel study. During the hypotensive phase, both reached high levels in the constrictor range. During TAB, high concentrations were reached with small BV loss, representing a model of near-maximum release of PRA and AVP.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)H221-H228
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1990
Externally publishedYes


  • Angiotensin II
  • Arginine vasopressin
  • Autonomic blockade
  • Plasma renin activity
  • Rabbit
  • Rate of hemorrhage

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