Reflecting on homework in psychotherapy: What can we conclude from research and experience?

Nikolaos Kazantzis, Georgios K. Lampropoulos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

51 Citations (Scopus)


This article examines the empirical basis of using homework in psychotherapy and then offers a synthesis of the research literature with the preceding clinical articles. We provide a practitioner-friendly review of psychotherapy process and outcome research literature, concluding that there is now sufficient evidence to support the assertion that homework assignments enhance psychotherapy outcomes. It is also clear that homework compliance is a consistently significant predictor of treatment outcome. Limitations of existing studies and future research directions are outlined, and we suggest that more specific questions are required regarding the integration of homework into therapy process. Clinical recommendations and issues in homework administration described in preceding articles are also synthesized. The research evidence and contributors to this issue converge in recommending homework within the broad context of psychotherapy and using creative ways of administering homework that is customized to the client.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)577-585
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Clinical Psychology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2002
Externally publishedYes


  • Homework assignments
  • Process and outcome research
  • Psychotherapy practice

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