Reconstructing asynchrony for mechanical ventilation using a hysteresis loop virtual patient model

Cong Zhou, J. Geoffrey Chase, Qianhui Sun, Jennifer Knopp, Merryn H. Tawhai, Thomas Desaive, Knut Möller, Geoffrey M. Shaw, Yeong Shiong Chiew, Balazs Benyo

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2 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Patient-specific lung mechanics during mechanical ventilation (MV) can be identified from measured waveforms of fully ventilated, sedated patients. However, asynchrony due to spontaneous breathing (SB) effort can be common, altering these waveforms and reducing the accuracy of identified, model-based, and patient-specific lung mechanics. Methods: Changes in patient-specific lung elastance over a pressure–volume (PV) loop, identified using hysteresis loop analysis (HLA), are used to detect the occurrence of asynchrony and identify its type and pattern. The identified HLA parameters are then combined with a nonlinear mechanics hysteresis loop model (HLM) to extract and reconstruct ventilated waveforms unaffected by asynchronous breaths. Asynchrony magnitude can then be quantified using an energy-dissipation metric, Easyn, comparing PV loop area between model-reconstructed and original, altered asynchronous breathing cycles. Performance is evaluated using both test-lung experimental data with a known ground truth and clinical data from four patients with varying levels of asynchrony. Results: Root mean square errors for reconstructed PV loops are within 5% for test-lung experimental data, and 10% for over 90% of clinical data. Easyn clearly matches known asynchrony magnitude for experimental data with RMS errors < 4.1%. Clinical data performance shows 57% breaths having Easyn > 50% for Patient 1 and 13% for Patient 2. Patient 3 only presents 20% breaths with Easyn > 10%. Patient 4 has Easyn = 0 for 96% breaths showing accuracy in a case without asynchrony. Conclusions: Experimental test-lung validation demonstrates the method’s reconstruction accuracy and generality in controlled scenarios. Clinical validation matches direct observations of asynchrony in incidence and quantifies magnitude, including cases without asynchrony, validating its robustness and potential efficacy as a clinical real-time asynchrony monitoring tool.

Original languageEnglish
Article number16
Number of pages20
JournalBioMedical Engineering Online
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 7 Mar 2022


  • Asynchrony
  • Hysteresis loop model
  • Hysteretic lung mechanics
  • Lung mechanics
  • Mechanical ventilation
  • Virtual patient

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