Gram-negative bacteria that are resistant to antimicrobials, including carbapenems, have emerged as a significant global public health threat. Multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria, including carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE), place patients at risk of potentially untreatable infection. Australia has not reported a large number of CPE cases compared to Europe, North America, and the Middle East, creating an opportunity to prevent CPE from becoming established in Australia. An outbreak of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase in 2014 demonstrated there was variable testing, reporting, response to and communication of CPE. In response, the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care formed a taskforce to assist health facilities to respond to the threat of CPE. Recommendations for state and territory health departments include coordinating a risk assessment, undertaking epidemiological and microbiological investigations, determining the requirement for control measures, and coordinating risk-communication activities. The response should take advice from experts in infectious diseases, microbiology, public health, infection prevention and control and epidemiologists. The guide aims to: • Alert healthcare professionals, health departments and hospital executives to the emerging threat of CPE in Australia• Recommend strategies to prevent, detect and contain CPE• Provide information and resources for hospital executives, healthcare professionals and consumers• Recommend laboratory screening and confirmation methods.The recommendations with rationale and commentary have been structured into sections depending on the burden of CPE in the health facility. The sections include: planning, preparing and prevention; CPE screening and surveillance; strategies to reduce CPE transmission; outbreak management; laboratory screening and confirmation methods.