Recipe for Success - Lessons learnt from using xAPI within the connected learning analytics toolkit

Aneesha Bakharia, Kirsty Kitto, Abelardo Pardo, Dragan Gaševíc, Shane Dawson

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference PaperOtherpeer-review

40 Citations (Scopus)


An ongoing challenge for Learning Analytics research has been the scalable derivation of user interaction data from multiple technologies. The complexities associated with this challenge are increasing as educators embrace an ever grow- ing number of social and content-related technologies. The Experience API (xAPI) alongside the development of user specific record stores has been touted as a means to ad- dress this challenge, but a number of subtle considerations must be made when using xAPI in Learning Analytics. This paper provides a general overview to the complexities and challenges of using xAPI in a general systemic analytics solution - called the Connected Learning Analytics (CLA) toolkit. The importance of design is emphasised, as is the notion of common vocabularies and xAPI Recipes. Early decisions about vocabularies and structural relationships be- Tween statements can serve to either facilitate or handicap later analytics solutions. The CLA toolkit case study pro- vides us with a way of examining both the strengths and the weaknesses of the current xAPI specification, and we con- clude with a proposal for how xAPI might be improved by using JSON-LD to formalise Recipes in a machine readable form.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationLAK '16 Conference Proceedings
Subtitle of host publicationThe Sixth International Learning Analytics & Knowledge Conference: Enhancing Impact: Convergence of Communities for Grounding, Implementation, and Validation
EditorsShane Dawson, Hendrik Drachsler, Carolyn Penstein Rosé
Place of PublicationNew York NY USA
PublisherAssociation for Computing Machinery (ACM)
Number of pages5
ISBN (Electronic)9781450341905
Publication statusPublished - 2016
Externally publishedYes
EventInternational Learning Analytics & Knowledge Conference 2016 - University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
Duration: 25 Apr 201629 Apr 2016
Conference number: 6th


ConferenceInternational Learning Analytics & Knowledge Conference 2016
Abbreviated titleLAK 2016
Country/TerritoryUnited Kingdom
Internet address


  • Architecture
  • Cla toolkit
  • Clrecipe
  • Learning ana- lytics
  • Learning record store
  • Xapi

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