In recent years, emerging interests in stem cell biology and the burgeoning promise of cell therapies has culminated in an incrasingly complex patent landscape. The onus is on inventors to patent discoveries in order to protect their intellectual property, which may become commercially valuable. This chapte will discuss the steps involved in patent development and requirements for patent filing. We will also discuss recent patents on the collection, isolation, characterization and application of stem cells derived from gestational tissues including the placenta, placental membranes (amnion/chorion), amniotic fluid, umbilical cord tissue and cord blood. The patents described in this chapter have been selected due to their relevance to other chapters in this book.