Real-time safety for human-robot interaction

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This paper presents a strategy for ensuring safety during human-robot interaction in real time. A measure of danger during the interaction is explicitly computed, based on factors affecting the impact force during a potential collision between the human and the robot. This danger index is then used as an input to real-time trajectory generation when the index exceeds a predefined threshold. The danger index is formulated to produce a provably stable, fast response in the presence of multiple surrounding obstacles. A motion strategy to minimize the danger index is developed for articulated multi-degree-of-freedom robots. Simulations and experiments show the efficacy of this approach.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-12
Number of pages12
JournalRobotics and Autonomous Systems
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 31 Jan 2006
Externally publishedYes


  • Human-robot interaction
  • On-line trajectory planning
  • Robotic safety
  • Safety level estimation

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