Rates and factors associated with major modifications to first-line combination antiretroviral therapy: results from the Asia-Pacific region

Stephen Wright, Mark Boyd, Evy Yunihastuti, Matthew Law, Thira Sirisanthana, Jennifer F Hoy, Sanjay Pujari, Man Po Lee, Kathy Petoumenos

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Abstract

Background: In the Asia-Pacific region many countries have adopted the WHO s public health approach to HIV care and treatment. We performed exploratory analyses of the factors associated with first major modification to first-line combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-rich and resource-limited countries in the region. Methods: We selected treatment naive HIV-positive adults from the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD) and the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD). We dichotomised each country s per capita income into high/upper-middle (T-H) and lower-middle/low (T-L). Survival methods stratified by income were used to explore time to first major modification of first-line ART and associated factors. We defined a treatment modification as either initiation of a new class of antiretroviral (ARV) or a substitution of two or more ARV agents from within the same ARV class. Results: A total of 4250 patients had 961 major modifications to first-line ART in the first five years of therapy. The cumulative incidence (95 CI) of treatment modification was 0.48 (0.44-0.52), 0.33 (0.30-0.36) and 0.21 (0.18-0.23) for AHOD, T-H and T-L respectively. We found no strong associations between typical patient characteristic factors and rates of treatment modification. In AHOD, relative to sites that monitor twice-yearly (both CD4 and HIV RNA-VL), quarterly monitoring corresponded with a doubling of the rate of treatment modifications. In T-H, relative to sites that monitor once-yearly (both CD4 and HIV RNA-VL), monitoring twice-yearly corresponded to a 1.8 factor increase in treatment modifications. In T-L, no sites on average monitored both CD4 HIV RNA-VL concurrently once-yearly. We found no differences in rates of modifications for once- or twice-yearly CD4 count monitoring. Conclusions: Low-income countries tended to have lower rates of major modifications made to first-line ART compared to higher-income countries. In higher-income countries, an increased rate of RNA-VL monitoring was associated with increased modifications to first-line ART. ? 2013 Wright et al.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere64902
Number of pages12
JournalPLoS ONE
Volume8
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013

Cite this

Wright, Stephen ; Boyd, Mark ; Yunihastuti, Evy ; Law, Matthew ; Sirisanthana, Thira ; Hoy, Jennifer F ; Pujari, Sanjay ; Lee, Man Po ; Petoumenos, Kathy. / Rates and factors associated with major modifications to first-line combination antiretroviral therapy: results from the Asia-Pacific region. In: PLoS ONE. 2013 ; Vol. 8, No. 6.
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title = "Rates and factors associated with major modifications to first-line combination antiretroviral therapy: results from the Asia-Pacific region",
abstract = "Background: In the Asia-Pacific region many countries have adopted the WHO s public health approach to HIV care and treatment. We performed exploratory analyses of the factors associated with first major modification to first-line combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-rich and resource-limited countries in the region. Methods: We selected treatment naive HIV-positive adults from the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD) and the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD). We dichotomised each country s per capita income into high/upper-middle (T-H) and lower-middle/low (T-L). Survival methods stratified by income were used to explore time to first major modification of first-line ART and associated factors. We defined a treatment modification as either initiation of a new class of antiretroviral (ARV) or a substitution of two or more ARV agents from within the same ARV class. Results: A total of 4250 patients had 961 major modifications to first-line ART in the first five years of therapy. The cumulative incidence (95 CI) of treatment modification was 0.48 (0.44-0.52), 0.33 (0.30-0.36) and 0.21 (0.18-0.23) for AHOD, T-H and T-L respectively. We found no strong associations between typical patient characteristic factors and rates of treatment modification. In AHOD, relative to sites that monitor twice-yearly (both CD4 and HIV RNA-VL), quarterly monitoring corresponded with a doubling of the rate of treatment modifications. In T-H, relative to sites that monitor once-yearly (both CD4 and HIV RNA-VL), monitoring twice-yearly corresponded to a 1.8 factor increase in treatment modifications. In T-L, no sites on average monitored both CD4 HIV RNA-VL concurrently once-yearly. We found no differences in rates of modifications for once- or twice-yearly CD4 count monitoring. Conclusions: Low-income countries tended to have lower rates of major modifications made to first-line ART compared to higher-income countries. In higher-income countries, an increased rate of RNA-VL monitoring was associated with increased modifications to first-line ART. ? 2013 Wright et al.",
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Rates and factors associated with major modifications to first-line combination antiretroviral therapy: results from the Asia-Pacific region. / Wright, Stephen; Boyd, Mark; Yunihastuti, Evy; Law, Matthew; Sirisanthana, Thira; Hoy, Jennifer F; Pujari, Sanjay; Lee, Man Po; Petoumenos, Kathy.

In: PLoS ONE, Vol. 8, No. 6, e64902, 2013.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Rates and factors associated with major modifications to first-line combination antiretroviral therapy: results from the Asia-Pacific region

AU - Wright, Stephen

AU - Boyd, Mark

AU - Yunihastuti, Evy

AU - Law, Matthew

AU - Sirisanthana, Thira

AU - Hoy, Jennifer F

AU - Pujari, Sanjay

AU - Lee, Man Po

AU - Petoumenos, Kathy

PY - 2013

Y1 - 2013

N2 - Background: In the Asia-Pacific region many countries have adopted the WHO s public health approach to HIV care and treatment. We performed exploratory analyses of the factors associated with first major modification to first-line combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-rich and resource-limited countries in the region. Methods: We selected treatment naive HIV-positive adults from the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD) and the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD). We dichotomised each country s per capita income into high/upper-middle (T-H) and lower-middle/low (T-L). Survival methods stratified by income were used to explore time to first major modification of first-line ART and associated factors. We defined a treatment modification as either initiation of a new class of antiretroviral (ARV) or a substitution of two or more ARV agents from within the same ARV class. Results: A total of 4250 patients had 961 major modifications to first-line ART in the first five years of therapy. The cumulative incidence (95 CI) of treatment modification was 0.48 (0.44-0.52), 0.33 (0.30-0.36) and 0.21 (0.18-0.23) for AHOD, T-H and T-L respectively. We found no strong associations between typical patient characteristic factors and rates of treatment modification. In AHOD, relative to sites that monitor twice-yearly (both CD4 and HIV RNA-VL), quarterly monitoring corresponded with a doubling of the rate of treatment modifications. In T-H, relative to sites that monitor once-yearly (both CD4 and HIV RNA-VL), monitoring twice-yearly corresponded to a 1.8 factor increase in treatment modifications. In T-L, no sites on average monitored both CD4 HIV RNA-VL concurrently once-yearly. We found no differences in rates of modifications for once- or twice-yearly CD4 count monitoring. Conclusions: Low-income countries tended to have lower rates of major modifications made to first-line ART compared to higher-income countries. In higher-income countries, an increased rate of RNA-VL monitoring was associated with increased modifications to first-line ART. ? 2013 Wright et al.

AB - Background: In the Asia-Pacific region many countries have adopted the WHO s public health approach to HIV care and treatment. We performed exploratory analyses of the factors associated with first major modification to first-line combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-rich and resource-limited countries in the region. Methods: We selected treatment naive HIV-positive adults from the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD) and the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD). We dichotomised each country s per capita income into high/upper-middle (T-H) and lower-middle/low (T-L). Survival methods stratified by income were used to explore time to first major modification of first-line ART and associated factors. We defined a treatment modification as either initiation of a new class of antiretroviral (ARV) or a substitution of two or more ARV agents from within the same ARV class. Results: A total of 4250 patients had 961 major modifications to first-line ART in the first five years of therapy. The cumulative incidence (95 CI) of treatment modification was 0.48 (0.44-0.52), 0.33 (0.30-0.36) and 0.21 (0.18-0.23) for AHOD, T-H and T-L respectively. We found no strong associations between typical patient characteristic factors and rates of treatment modification. In AHOD, relative to sites that monitor twice-yearly (both CD4 and HIV RNA-VL), quarterly monitoring corresponded with a doubling of the rate of treatment modifications. In T-H, relative to sites that monitor once-yearly (both CD4 and HIV RNA-VL), monitoring twice-yearly corresponded to a 1.8 factor increase in treatment modifications. In T-L, no sites on average monitored both CD4 HIV RNA-VL concurrently once-yearly. We found no differences in rates of modifications for once- or twice-yearly CD4 count monitoring. Conclusions: Low-income countries tended to have lower rates of major modifications made to first-line ART compared to higher-income countries. In higher-income countries, an increased rate of RNA-VL monitoring was associated with increased modifications to first-line ART. ? 2013 Wright et al.

UR - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23840312

U2 - 10.1371/journal.pone.0064902

DO - 10.1371/journal.pone.0064902

M3 - Article

VL - 8

JO - PLoS ONE

JF - PLoS ONE

SN - 1932-6203

IS - 6

M1 - e64902

ER -