Progress in understanding of energy transfer in nature and human being requires novel approaches to the processing of solids on demand, in specially those with composition gradients and those thermodynamically and kinetically inaccessible. We demonstrate that rapidly oscillating microbubbles are useful for materials processing, because they manipulate surface temperature and creates temperature gradients in predictable way. Ultrasonic treatment leads to an increase in the surface area of particles up to 180 m2g−1 and the formation of micropores in metal phase and mesopores in metal oxide phase. The spatially and temporally unique energy dissipation conditions promise new interfaces with higher level of complexity and applications among others in catalysis, energy storage, drug delivery.
- Metal particles
- Temperature gradient