Rapid processing technologies of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) offer an exciting approach to raise the rate of production. Herein, a rapid microwave-annealing process (MAP) is reported to replace the traditional hotplate annealing process (HAP) and the processing period of perovskite is reduced to less than 1 min. Benefiting from the penetrability and simultaneity of microwave irradiation, the MAP method can effectively eliminate miscellaneous phases and thus achieve >1 µm large-size crystal grains in perovskite films. These MAP treated perovskite films exhibit pure crystalline phase, long charge-carrier lifetime, and low defect density, which can substantially improve the PSC efficiency without requiring an additional enhancer/passivation layer. The inverted planar PSCs present enhanced power conversion efficiency from 18.33% (HAP) to 21.59% (MAP) and good stability of >1000 h lifetime without encapsulation under ambient conditions. In addition, MAP can be applied to a large-size (10 cm × 10 cm) perovskite film fabrication as well as a broader tolerance in environmental temperature and precursor concentration, making it a reliable method for repeatably practical fabrication of perovskite photovoltaics.
- broad tolerance window
- eliminate miscellaneous phase
- microwave annealing process
- perovskite solar cells
- rapid annealing period