Rapid, hand-held paper diagnostic for measuring Fibrinogen Concentration in blood

Marek Bialkower, Heather McLiesh, Clare A. Manderson, Rico F. Tabor, Gil Garnier

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Critical bleeding causes over 2 million deaths a year. Early hypofibrinogenemia is a strong predictor of mortality in critically bleeding patients. The early replenishment of fibrinogen can significantly improve outcomes. However, over replenishment can also be dangerous. Furthermore, there is no rapid, cheap, hand-held diagnostic that can aid critically bleeding patients in fibrinogen replacement therapy. In this study, we have developed a hand-held paper diagnostic that measures plasma fibrinogen concentrations. The diagnostic has the potential to be used as a point of care device both inside and outside of hospital settings. It can vastly reduce the time to treatment for fibrinogen replacement therapy. The diagnostic is a two-step process. First, thrombin and plasma are added onto horizontially-orientated paper strips where the fibrinogen is converted into fibrin, drastically increasing the plasma's hydrophobicity. Second, an aqueous blue dye is pipetted onto the strips and allowed to wick through the fibrin. The distance the blue dye wicks through the strip correlates precisely to the fibrinogen concentration. The diagnostic can provide results within a minute. It can distinguish low fibrinogen concentrations (ie. <2 g/L) from normal fibrinogen concentrations. It shows remarkable reproducibility between healthy individuals. It is unaffected by common blood conditions such as acidosis, blood alcohol, severe hypertriglyceridemia, severe haemolysis and warfarin administration. Finally, it is unaffected by humidity and can withstand cold temperatures.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)72-83
Number of pages12
JournalAnalytica Chimica Acta
Publication statusPublished - 15 Mar 2020


  • Bleeding
  • Blood
  • Coagulopathy
  • Fibrinogen concentration
  • Fibrinogen paper diagnostic
  • Haemorrhage
  • Paper test
  • Plasma
  • Transfusion

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