Background: Thiopurine hypermethylation towards 6-methylmercaptopurine (6MMP) instead of 6-thioguanine nucleotides (6TGN) is associated with inefficacy in patients with IBD. Allopurinol reverses such hypermethylation. Aims: To prospectively determine efficacy of allopurinol-thiopurine combination and to compare 2 doses of allopurinol. Design: In a multicentre, double-blind trial, patients with clinically active or steroid-dependent IBD and thiopurine shunting were randomised to 50 or 100 mg/d allopurinol and 25% of their screening thiopurine dose, which was subsequently optimised, aiming for 6TGN of 260-500 pmol/8x108RBCs. The primary endpoint was steroid-free clinical remission at 24 weeks. Results: Of 73 patients, 39 (53% [95% CI 42-65]) achieved steroid-free remission, (54% with 50 mg/d and 53% with 100 mg/d). 81% were able to discontinue steroids. Therapeutic 6TGN levels were achieved in both groups. Final thiopurine doses were lower with 100 mg/d allopurinol (P < 0.005). 6MMP: 6TGN ratio decreased from mean 64 to 4 (P < 0.001), being higher with 50 mg/d (6 ± 1.83) than for 100 mg/d ([1 ± 0.16], P = 0.003). Three patients on 50 mg/d failed to sustain low ratios at 24 weeks. Toxicity was minimal; three patients on 50 mg/d allopurinol developed transient leukopenia. Alanine aminotransferase concentrations decreased (P < 0.001) similarly in both arms. Faecal calprotectin levels at study end were lower in patients who achieved the primary endpoint (median 171 [85-541] vs 821[110-5892] ug/g, P = 0.03). Conclusions: Low-dose allopurinol-thiopurine combination safely reverses shunting and optimises 6TGN with associated improvement in disease activity. 100 mg/d allopurinol is preferable due to greater metabolite profile stability and lower thiopurine dose without additional toxicity.