Fluorescence microscopy, a gold standard in the tissue or cell imaging, has several drawbacks, with a severe one being its disability to elucidate the chemical characteristics of the sample. Confocal Raman microscopy is a tempting label free alternative to fluorescence and a prospective future method of medical diagnostics. Raman measurements of tissues can provide information about their chemical composition, i.e. main components but also specific compounds, and their changes upon the development of patholog or its treatment. The analysis is based on characteristic marker bands, provided they can be identified in the spectra, or by more common approach using chemometrics. Moreover, Raman microscopy can be used to detect small biochemical alterations and their respective distribution in a single cell or even at sub-cellular level. The impact of various factors, including the uptake of drugs, bioactive compounds or non-chemical stressors can be observed using such investigations of cells.