Rainbow plots, bagplots, and boxplots for functional data

Robin John Hyndman, Han Lin Shang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

193 Citations (Scopus)


We propose new tools for visualizing large amounts of functional data in the form of smooth curves. The proposed tools include functional versions of the bagplot and boxplot, which make use of the first two robust principal component scores. Tukey's data depth and highest density regions.

By-products of our graphical displays are outlier detection methods for functional data. We compare these new outlier detection methods with existing methods for detecting outliers in functional data, and show that our methods are better able to identify outliers.

An R-package containing computer code and datasets is available in the online supplements.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)29-45
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Computational and Graphical Statistics
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2010

Cite this